經濟Cliff Yeung & His Team
S.3-S.6 Economics Efficiency and Divergence between Private & Social Costs

1. Efficiency

Conditions for efficiency: 達至效率的條件:
Maximization of total social surplus; marginal benefit equals marginal cost 總社會盈餘極大化;邊際利益等於邊際成本
Deviations from efficiency: 偏離效率:
Price ceiling, price floor, tax, subsidy quota and deadweight loss 價格上限、價格下限、稅項、津貼及配額與淨損失
Divergence between private and social costs (benefits): 私人代價(利益)和社會代價(利益)的分歧:
Market versus government solutions 市場與政府的解決辦法

2. Equity

Measuring income inequality: income distribution, Lorenz curve and Gini coefficient 量度收入不均:

收入分配、洛倫茨曲線及堅尼系數

Sources of income inequality 收入不均的緣由
Policy concerns: Equalizing income or equalizing opportunities, disincentive effects of taxes and transfers, trade-off between equity and efficiency 政策的考慮:

收入均等化或機會均等化,稅項及轉移的抑制作用、公平與效率之間的取捨

3. Measure of Economic Performance 經濟表現的量度

I. Nation Income國民收入

Circular flow of economic activities 經濟活動的循環流程
Meaning of gross domestic product (GDP) 本地生產總值的意思
Three approaches to measure GDP: the production approach, expenditure approach and income approach 從三個層面計算本地生產總值:生產面、收入面、支出面
GDP vs. GNI 本地生產總值vs. 本地居民收入

II. Inflation/ deflation, Unemployment and the Business Cycle 失業、通脹/通縮及經濟週期

Measure of the general price level 一般物價水平的量度
Meaning of inflation/ deflation 通脹/通縮的意思
Measurement of inflation/ deflation 通脹/通縮的量度
Redistributive effects of inflation/ deflation 通脹/通縮的再度分配影響
GDP at current and constant market prices 以當時市價及以固定市價計劃的本地生產總值
Per capita GDP and GDP growth rate 人均本地生產總值及本地生產總值增長率
Limitation of GDP as a measure of welfare 以本地生產總值量度福利的限制
Meaning of unemployment 失業的意思
Measure of unemployment 失業的量度
Cost of unemployment 失業的代價
Underemployment 就業不足
Four phases of the business cycle 經濟週期的四個階段

4. AD-AS model 總需求-總供應模型

Meaning of aggregate demand 總需求的意思
Why the AD curve is downward sloping 為甚麼AD曲線向右下傾斜
Factors affecting the AD curve 影響AD曲線的因素
Meaning of aggregate supply 總供應的意思
Why the short-run AS curve is vertical 為甚麼短期AS曲線向右上傾斜
Factors affecting the short-run AS curve 影響短期AS曲線的因素
Why the long-run AS curve is vertical 為甚麼期長期AS曲線是垂直的
Factors affecting the long-run AS curve 影響長期AS曲線的因素
Determination of equilibrium price level and output in the short run 決定長期均衡價格水平及產出
Short run fluctuations in price level and output: changes in AD and/ or AS 價格水平及產出的短期波動:AD及/或AS曲線的轉娛
Determination of equilibrium price level and output in the long run 決定長期均衡價格水平及產出
Changes in the price level and full-employment output in the long run 在長期,價格水平與充分就業產出的轉變
The use of fiscal policy to achieve different objectives, e.g. full employment, stabilization of output or price level etc. 使用財政政策達到不同目標,如充分就業、穩定產出或物價水平等

5. Fiscal Policy 財政政策

Meaning of fiscal policy 財政政策的意思
Principles of taxation 課稅的原則
Direct tax vs. indirect tax 直接稅vs.間接稅
Progressive, proportional and regressive tax 累進稅、比例稅及累退稅
Other revenues of the government 政府的其他收入來源
Government expenditures 政府支出
Changes in tax system and government expenditure and their effects 稅制及政府開支的改變及其影響
S.3-S.6 Economics Efficiency and Divergence between Private & Social Costs

[課程相等於 2020-2021 S5 常規課程 L1-L9/同名 B Class 課程] cro0

(課程系列參考碼:226IECJCY)

網上   226IECJ41-O BC 26/9 9 $1785
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